Difficulties in Transition among Livelihoods under Agricultural Land Conversion for Industrialization: Perspective of Human Development
Increasing industrialization in Vietnam has transformed numerous fields of farmers to industrial zones, especially in the Red River Delta in Vietnam. This process forces farmers to change significantly their livelihoods. Affected same changes, farmers have to start new livelihoods. However, in many industrializing regions, inequality and social differentiation are increasing higher than before among farmers practicing new livelihoods. This implies that new livelihoods of partly farmer groups are not as good as those of others. Such farmer groups have faced difficulties preventing them to have better livelihoods, and creating hidden social stratification. From perspective of human development as capabilities expansion, this research identifies difficulties and farmers’ capabilities during the process of starting new livelihood. As preliminary results, there are farmer groups having limited choices for new good livelihoods. Main difficulties in transition livelihoods are lack of financial resources, new working skills, market information, market linkages, and constraint of age. Such problems create deprivation of capability or freedom in starting new good livelihood. Of methodology, the research examines changes in livelihoods of farmers who are affected from agricultural land conversion for industrialized zones in Red River Delta, Vietnam. In-depth interview and group discussion are taken to understand transition in livelihoods, and farmers ‘capabilities in starting new livelihoods. This research contributes to human development discourse from aspect of livelihoods. Also, identifying difficulties is useful for explaining inequality and social differentiation under industrialization. The research is helpful for policy makers and state staffs who design and implement policies of agriculture and industrialization.
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 2039-9340(Print) ISSN 2039-2117(Online)
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