The Negative Non-Finite Form of Albanian and the Way it is Expressed in Latin

Leonard Xhamani

Abstract


During its historical development Albanian language has created not only finite forms but also non-finite forms, one of them being the negative non-finite form. The verb in this non-finite form indicates that an action – mainly in the past or the future – is not performed. Scholars of Albanian have given various opinions in terms of how this structure is constructed. However, the authoritative source, the book published by the Academy of Sciences of Albania (Gramatikë e gjuhës shqipe), gives the following definition: The negative non-finite form is structured by putting the negative particle “without” in front of the participle of the verb: e.g. pa pasur (without having), pa menduar (without thinking), pa vënë (without putting), etc. Even though it has five non-finite forms, Latin does not have such a structure as without + participle, as in Albanian. Latin, on the other hand, has a corresponding structure: sine + the ablative of the noun that corresponds to the verb, for example: pa u druajtur (without hesitating) = sine timore, pa bërtitur (without shouting) = sine clamore; pa qarë (without crying) = sine lacrimis, etc. However, the Latin structure that comes closer to the Albanian negative non-finite form is the participle preceded by the negative in the form of an apposition or the absolute ablative, for instance: pa qenë i kërkuar (without being searched) = non rogatus; pa qenë i thirrur (without being called) = non vocatus, etc.

DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n8p616


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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 2039-9340(Print) ISSN 2039-2117(Online)

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