Motor Control and Learning Skills According to Cognitive and Ecological Dynamic Approach in a Vision on Behaviorism, Cognitive, Gestalt and Phenomenology Theories

Gaetano Raiola

Abstract


In physical activity and sport, teaching method is traditionally imparted by the coach or teacher with tutorials that have the theoretical basis in the Cognitive approach. It means, they illustrate greatly and the tutorials are of Partial type, Varied one, Randomized one, Mental Training one and, finally, using the feedback for error correction. Cognitive approach has the physiological and psychological basis in theory of motor control in Circuit Open Loop, Circuit Closed Loop and Motor Program Generalized. Otherwise, teaching methods of physical activity and sport could be suggested in another way, called Ecological-Dynamic approach, where the dynamic is opposite in the past case. The coach or the teacher does not use the tutorials, but he uses to build a setting learning aimed at variety of motor skills and he plays of the phenomenon in a natural way using the variables. This second approach has the physiological and psychological basis in theory of motor control in Motor Imagery and Freedom Degrees. The Motor Imagery could be made in first person and in third person. Freedom Degrees is made by three consecutive steps: Reduction of Freedom Degrees, Exploration of new Freedom Degrees and Capitalization of the final Freedom Degrees. Behaviorism and Cognitive theory have the mind in the focus of learning process. Vice versa, Gestalt and Phenomenology has the environment in the focus of learning process. Both of them has the main difference between the role of the mind and the role of the learning setting. Aim is to study the issue of motor control theory and what is the correlation to learning process and motor skills. Specifically, to aim the relation on mind theory such as the fourth principal of them. Methods of this study is to analyze the specific aspects of learning approach in physical activity and sport. After, to analyze the elements of mind theory according to Behaviorism, Cognitive, Gestalt and Phenomenology and then to elaborate the logical relation. Main results and conclusion show two types of relationship. The first one is between cognitive approach, which includes closed loop motor control, open loop motor control and generalized motor program, with Behaviorism and Cognitive. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship among tutorials techniques such as order, demand, sequence and timing and the prescriptive teaching method of Behaviorism and Cognitive applied to motor skill. The second one is between ecological dynamic approach, which includes Motor Imagery and Freedom Degrees, and Gestalt and Phenomenology. Furthermore, there is a significant relationship among learning setting, such as environment and specific strategies of teaching method, and the strategies of cooperative learning, role playing, circle time, brain storming, peer education, tutorship, focus group. So it can observe the invasive role of the coach or the teacher in cognitive approach and non-invasive role in ecological dynamic approach. In conclusion, it suggests to deep the ideal setting in educational process in school and in sport association.

DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n15p504


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Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 2039-9340(Print) ISSN 2039-2117(Online)

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