An Interpretive Phenomenological Study of Older Entrepreneurs in Pakistan

Muhammad Usman, Luo Fan, Muhammad Anwar Ul Haq


What are the factors that lead an individual to be self-employed after retirement, and what factors help or hinder the transformation of entrepreneurial intentions into practical reality? We have investigated the triggers of self-employment after retirement from a push & pull perspective. The helping factors in materializing entrepreneurial intentions, and hindering factors due to which one may not do so have also been studied. Results from semi-structured interviews reveal that individuals are more likely to be pushed rather than pulled into self-employment at older age. The dominant push factors identified are financial security, maintaining/improving the existing standard of living, catering to family related needs and work-life balance. The pull factors include previous business experience and knowledge of other successful entrepreneurs. Factors that assisted the retirees in their entrepreneurial initiatives consist of social capital, previous experience (employment & business) and supportive role of family. Those who were not able to turn their self-employment intentions into practical reality were hindered by health issues, lack of capital, perceived complexities, and risk aversion. Research limitations, future research directions and policy recommendation have been given.

DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n2s1p290

Full Text: PDF

Licenza Creative Commons
This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences ISSN 2039-9340(Print) ISSN 2039-2117(Online)

Copyright © MCSER-Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the '' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders..